Sunday, 2 August 2015

Anthurium Plant Care [Full Guide]

Anthurium plant’s flower is one of the most popular tropical cut flower, which is being grown commercially for export as well as fo... thumbnail 1 summary
Anthurium plant

Anthurium plant’s flower is one of the most popular tropical cut flower, which is being grown commercially for export as well as for the local market in any country. The Anthurium plant belongs to the family Araceae. 

Anthuriurn andrenum and Anthurium scherzerianurn varieties are most common to provide plants and cut flowers for garden requirements as well as for growers and flower decorators.

Preparation of growing medium for Anthurium plant

The below growing medium is better to plant anthuriums.
Leaf mould 2: Sand ½: bricks pieces ½: Cattle manure 1 part ratios need to be mixed. First spread out leaf mould, then cattle manure next sand and finally add bricks pieces on it. use a shovel to mixed them properly.
Anthurium plant growing media
a.bricks pieces
b.Leaf mould & cattle manure
c.Sand




Repotting of Anthurium plant

If anthurium plant is over grown or pot bounded in nature the plant must be re pot. Plants need to be removed from the existing pot and remove unwanted leaves and roots. Next they need to be separated as top cuttings, stem cuttings and buds. Then, apply a paste of fungicides on cut surfaces and the top cutting is placed at the center of the prepared pot and 3/4 of the pot need to be filled with the growing medium. Finally, fungicide need to be applied to base of the stem cuttings and buds also place in the pot. Then apply water and place in a shady place.

Propagation of anthurium plant

Anthurium plant is propagated by stem cuttings, axillary shoots or suckers and sexually propagated by seeds. The plants that propagated by seeds are not suitable for commercial cultivation,because the characters may vary, but new varieties can be developed through hybridization.
Artificial pollination of anthurium flower

Anthurium plant pollination
Steps of pollination
video description to pollinate
First, suitable matured male and female flowers need to be selected for pollination. The male flower’s pollens are shed after 14 – 21 days after opening of the flower and powder like pollen can be observed on the spadix. The female flower, stigma are become receptive after 7 – 10 days unfurling of the spathe and producing sticky substances on the spadix. Powder like pollen are removed from the male flower spadix and they are applied on the sticky receptive spadix of the female flower with help of a brush. Pollinated spadix need to be covered by a polythene to avoid unknown crossings. Those steps need to be carried out 3 – 4 times within a week for successful pollination and seed formation.

Propagation of Anthurium using seeds

Anthurium plant seed bed
Preparation of seed bed

Preparation of the secondary nursery

After 4 – 5 months, seedlings can be introduced into a secondary nursery. Seedlings are pulled out and categorized according to the size as well grown healthy seedlings, medium sized seedlings and small seedlings. Well grown healthy seedlings were planted in 8 inch polythene pot and medium sized seedlings are planted in 5 inch polythene pots. Unhealthy small seedlings are introduced to the secondary nursery.
A 10 inch diameter shallow pot is used and a layer of rocks and concave tiles are placed at the bottom of the pan. It is covered with a layer of decaying leaves. Then the pan is filled by an anthurium potting mixture leaving a space of about one inch from the top of the pan. Then the small plantlets are planted with 1 inch distance and finally, it should be kept in a shady place.
Anthurium plant secondary bed
Preparation of the secondary nursery
Vegetative propagation of Anthurium plant

Anthurium is vegetatively propagated by using of stem cuttings, suckers and tissue cultured plants.

1.Stem cuttings

Stem cuttings are prepared by cutting the basal portion of plants into 2 inch sized sections. Each cutting are contained at least a single active bud. These cuttings are treated with a suitable fungicide and partially buried in a mixture of equal parts of coarse river sand and leaf mould in a bed or shallow pot with 2 x 2 inch spaces.

2.Suckers

Suckers are produced by mother plant. Suckers are also good planting materials but, one mother plant produce only 2 – 3 suckers per year. Suckers are removed and treated by suitable fungicide and need to be planted in a suitable pot within anthurium potting mixture.

3.Tissue cultured anthurium plants
 Tissue cultured Plants obtain by micropropagation technique.It is used to have a large number of plants from a part of plant.

Cultural practices of bed cultivation of anthurium plant



First of all weeds and debris should be removed. Then yellowing leaves and old flowers should also removed from the selected anthurium plant. Next hand fork can be used to lose the soil. Additionally plants are provided support by staking. Then “Osmocots” or suitable fertilizer (10:11:18), a slow release N: P: K fertilizer need to be applied. 5 – 10 grams is used per plant. Then beds are filled with leaf mould layer. Finally watering should be done.

Fertilizer requirement of anthurium plant



In different growing stages, plants need different amount of N: P: K ratios. Small seedlings need more nitrogen, growing plants need similar ratios; flowering plants need more potassium amount in those stages.

Anthurium plant growing stage

Identification of pests and diseases in anthurium plant cultivation


Mealy Bugs and Scales

They can be identified as white powdery masses and brownish patches on the underside of the anthurium plant leaves and flowers. Application of pressurized water and pesticides like Admier, Actar can be practiced as the control measures.

Anthurium plant Mealy Bugs (a) and Scales (b)

Mealy Bugs (a) and Scales (b)





Anthurium plant snail attracts

Slugs and Snails

slugs and snails are become a common problem in compost and coconut husk based media. Dark places with debris are favourable to hide and spread. They are damaged on leaves and flowers. To control, paddy husk can be spread out on the field, this will be damage to the body. Salt and coir dust mixture can be used around the field and also pesticide can be used.

Ex: – Meta

Anthurium plant thrips damage


Thrips


Thrip attack can be identified as tiny spots and pours on the anthurium plant leave’s and immature flowers. Basudine and Dizinone like pesticides can be used as a control measures. High temperature is favourable to spread, so need to lower the Temperature. Yellow and blue colour polythene can be used with applying grease. This will be act as a trap to stick them.

Anthurium plant mites damage

Mites


Mites are attacked on Anthurium plant leaves and flowers. Can be seen as irregular white colour patches on leaves and edge of the leaves shrivelled. Higher temperature was favourable for spreading.

High pressure water or 80% Sulfur can be sprayed on to anthurium plant to recover the problem. One ounce of 80% Sulfur was dissolved in one litter of water. Also Abamactin, Zoro like pesticides can be used.

Anthurium plant sun burning


Sun burning


This is happened due to exposure to direct sun light. Optimum shade must be provided to recover the problem.



Anthurium plant damping off


Damping off

Anthurium plant blight
This is occurred due to water logging and poor aeration in the growth medium. Rotted and wilted roots and leaves can be observed as disease symptoms.

Aeration is facilitated by losing and mixing of the growing 
medium as a control measure. Captan, Thiram and Metalaxil can be used as fungicides to prevent the spreading of this disease.


Bacterial leaf blight

This is caused by Xanthomonas bacteria. They are entered to the anthurium plant through wounds. Yellowing of leave, drying of yellowed areas. finally complete drying of plants could be identified as prominent symptoms of the disease.
Strict sanitation, uprooting and burning of infected plants, were the recommended instructions to control this. In additionally, in a severe damage, “Peranox” 4g/l of water can be used and apply them with a 4 – 6 month interval.